Auteur Topic: Roman Economy - Prices in Ancient Rome  (gelezen 11739 keer)

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Roman Economy - Prices in Ancient Rome
« Gepost op: december 20, 2007, 23:49:29 pm »
Roman Economy - Prices in Ancient Rome:

Daily Life:

The bread consumption in ancient Rome was quite high. A average male roman ate about 2 pound bread a day.
The ultimate unit of measurement for wheat was the Modius (plural: modii).
One modius equals 20.7 libra (1 libra (roman pound) = 322.5 g) equals 6.67 kg.
For the average monthly bread consumption for one person about 4 modii (26.68 kg = 58.8 pound) were neccesary.
One modius was used to produce 16 - 20 one pound loaves.

Virtually no price information for meat, fruits and vegetables is handed down.

1 Denari = 4 Sestertii = 16 As

Monthly Income and Prices for 1 modius Wheat in the 1st century AD:

Job Denari / month
Secretary 15
Lecturer 12
Messenger 9
Haruspex (fortune teller) 10
Legionary Soldier (Private) 20
Praetorian (guard in Rome) 60
Legionary Soldier (Centurion) ~300

6th century AD 
laborer/semi-skilled worker 9 folles/day
10-20 solidi / year 
 Location Price / As
Rome up to 32
provincial Italy 16
Africa 9 - 16
Asia minor 8 - 16
Palestine 10 - 12
Egypt (bread basket) 7 - 9
 
Other Prices:

1st century AD Price
1 modius wheat see above and right
1 loaf bread 1 dupondius
(=2 As ; in Rome)
1 sextarius wine
(~0.5 liter) 1 - 5 as
1 sextarius fine wine up to 30 as
a bath at a public bath 1/4 as
1 tunika (clothing) 15 sestertii
1 donkey 500 sestertii
1 slave 2000 sestertii = 500 denarii (up to 1500)
1 female slave 2000 - 6000 denarii
1 morgan land 1000 sestertii = 250 denarii
 Average price in As for
1 Modius wheat:
(values of Rome and Italy
derived from Egypt)

  Rome Italy Egypt
18BC-14AD 16 8 4
14 - 98 32 16 8
98 - 192 40 20 10
193 - 260 68 34 17
 

Pompeii 79 AD Price
1 modii wheat 7 sestertii = 28 as
1 modii rye 3 sestertii = 12 as
1 litra (1/3 kg) oil 1 sestertii = 4 as
1 pound bread 1 as
1/2 liter tablewine 1 as
1/2 liter fine wine 2 - 4 as
1 pot 1 as
1 dish 1 as
1 oillamp 1 as
1 bucket 2 sestertii = 8 as
1 tunika (clothes) 15 sestertii = 3 den. 3 ses.
1 donkey 500 sestertii = 125 den.
1 slave 2500 sestertii = 625 den.
1 fine for a criminal action 25 sestertii = 6 den. 1 ses.

mid 3rd cent.  Price / Antoninianii
1 fishing net 14
1 fish trap 6
1 small fishing boat 186
1 cooking pot 3
1 oil lamp 1
1 loaf of bread (1 pound) 1 (province)
1 sextarius wine 4
1 soldiers winter-cape 75
camel-leather boots 20
light leather shoes 12
1 sword 60
1 donkey 145
1 horse 250
1 healthy & strong slave 800-1200

~ 6th cent.  Price
1 unskilled slave 20 solidi
vegetables per day 5 folles (10 solidii / year)
1 lb. fish 6 folles
1 loaf of bread 3 folles (= half a day's labor wages)
1 wool blanket 1/25 solidus
1 second-hand cloak 1 solidus
1 donkey 3-4 solidii
1 copy of the New Testament 3 solidii

501: famine in Edessa Price
wheat rose from 30 to 4 bushels / solidus
barley rose from 50 to 6 bushels / solidus

40 bronze nummi = 1 copper follis
180 folles (7,200 nummi) = 1 solidus
72 solidi = half lb. of gold


Time Soldier Income / Day Price f. 1 Mod. Wheat
see note 3
211 - 210 BC see note 1   20 - 24 as
203 BC   4 as
200 - 150 BC 3 as 4 as
141 BC see note 2 5 as 6 as
123 BC   6.33 as
100 BC   8 as
73 BC 5 as 12 as
46 BC 10 as (unskilled labourer 12 As) 12 as
0 10 as 16 as = 1 den.
60 AD 16 as 32 as = 2 den.
170 AD 13 as 40 as = 2 den. 8 as
218 AD 16 as = 1 denar 68 as = 4 den. 4 as
305 AD   2 - 10 nummi see note 4

Note 1: Time of the devastation of Latinum by Hanibal.
Note 2: Retarification of the Denar: before 141 BC: 1 denarius = 10 As ; after 141 BC: 1 denarius = 16 As
Note 3: Average price in Rome (for provincial Rome half price ; for Egypt 1/4 price)
Note 4: After struggling with the economy and a money reform in 214 AD the nummi was introduced in 294.
It had the same buying power like the denari in early times. 2 nummi in Egypt ; 10 nummi in Rome.

Consumption of a family of 4 per year in Rome:

* in the Roman Republic (175 - 150 BC):

A family of 4 persons needed the following goods per year, where 40% were consumpted by the adult male in the family.

120 modii wheat (= 800 kg) 480 as
120 sextarii of oil (= 65 liter) 80 as
720 sextarii of wine (= 400 liter) 120 as
  680 as = 68 denari (see note 2)
Soldier Income: ~100 denari / year   

* in the Roman Empire (75 - 125 AD):

Rome : 200 denari for wheat, oil, wine (2 - 2.5 as per day)
Provincial regions: 100 denari



EXAMPLES:

Republic: 137 BC: 1 denarius paid a soldier for 3 days. Enough to buy wheat for one month.
1 As ~ 1 loaf of bread

Bibliography:

Duncan-Jones - The economy of the Roman empire
Kenneth W. Harl - Coinage in the Roman Empire

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Adkins - Handbook to life in ancient Rome:


time payment comments
2nd century BC legionary: 1/2 denarius /day
centurion: 1 denarius / day
cavalryman: 1 1/2 denarii / day soldiers also received an allowance of corn deducted from their pay
mid. 1st cent. BC legionary: 112.5 denarii / year   
time of Caesar legionary: 225 denarii / year   
time of Augustus legionary: 225 denarii / year
praetorian guard: 375 denarii / year
centurion: 3750 - 15000 denarii / year at the end of Augustus reign:
praetorian guard: 750 denarii / year
83-84 AD (Domitian) legionary: 300 denarii / year
praetorian guard: 1000 denarii / year
centurion: 5000 - 20000 denarii / year   
time of Sept. Severus legionary: 459 denarii / year
centurion: 8333 - 33333 denarii / year   
time of Caracalla legionary: 675 denarii / year   

In general: early empire:
auxiliary infantry: 1/3 legionary pay
auxiliary cavalry: 2/3 legionary pay

Adkins - Handbook to life in ancient Greece:


time payment comments
late 5th cent. BC workman: 1 drachma / day
assistant: 3 obols / day
agricultural laborers: 4 obols / day + food for 2 obols / day   
beginning 4th cent. BC foreman of a gang of bricklayers: 2 drachmas / day
12-15 drachmas / 1000 bricks
 wages gradually became bases on piecework than on daily rate 
mid. 4th cent. BC @Delphi plasterers 1 - 2.5 dra. / day
end 4th cent. BC @Eleusis: bricklayer, carpenter, plasterer 2.5 drachmas / day
17 drachmas / 1000 bricks

sawyer 2 drachmas / day
laborer 1.5 drachmas / day
 

   
Fee for attandance of the Assembly in Athens 4th cent. BC: 4 regular meetings in each prytany (40 per year); fee introduced in 400 BC; 1 obol per meeting initially; 6 obols in 327 BC with 9 obols for the main meeting in each prytany
payment for jurors at the law courts trials by juries instituted in the 5th cent. BC; payment introduced by Pericles; initially 2 obols / day; 425 BC 3 obols / day
military training for 18 year-old men 2 years training; after 305 BC ceased to be compulsory; 282 BC 1 year training
before 305 BC (compulsory): daily allowance of 4 obols / day

Bron:  http://ancientcoins.biz/pages/economy/