Auteur Topic: iets leerzaams over fibula's  (gelezen 2494 keer)

aureum

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iets leerzaams over fibula's
« Gepost op: oktober 29, 2007, 17:34:36 pm »
hallo mensen...dit zal zeker interesant zijn voor de mensen die weinig of bijna niks over fibulae weten.....

Essential items of dress
Romans wore togas - or so theatre and ½lm would convince us. Commoner in Britain were brooch-fastened tunics. Justine Bayley and Sarnia Butcher have just completed a major study of the once shiny little pins

Though cloaks were standard dress from the 1st century AD, wool or linen clothes have not survived from Roman Britain. Metal brooches, however, are very common. There are probably some 30,000 in museums and private collections. Originally there would have been far more: what we have is just the tip of the iceberg.

These fasteners have been intensively studied. As a result, we know much about the changes in styles, how they were made and the varied materials that went into them.

At first most were utilitarian safety-pin shapes made from one piece of wire bent round to form a simple spring. This was based on the La Tène type brooches common throughout Europe in the later Iron Age.

All sorts of variations developed, both to the pin mechanism (some were hinged, with a separate pin) and to the ‘bow’, widened to give more scope for decoration. As more elaborate cast decoration evolved the spring and pin were made separately; this also enabled the use of cheaper leaded alloys for the brooch. The ‘plate’ brooches, with a flat surface suitable for decoration, were another development. These were probably more for ornament than use: they are usually quite small with insufficient room between the plate and pin to hold thick layers of cloth.

These variations developed in numerous different ways, and we use the small differences to sort the brooches into types. A chronology has been built up from finds in dated deposits: although brooches were sometimes kept for a long time they are relatively abundant and it is usually possible to arrive at a general period of use, if not a close date. Brooch types often show limited areas of use, narrowing the region of manufacture. Analysis has shown the metal alloy varies with type (see end feature).

Military cloaks were fastened with brooches, so the Roman army had an important influence on brooch design. The army’s brooches are sophisticated, usually with limited relief decoration. Brooches found in forts occupied during the mid-1st century conquest of southern Britain are similar to those from continental forts of the same period. The Aucissa, a hinged brooch, is the most general type; this name (and occasionally others), presumed to indicate the manufacturer, was sometimes stamped on the brooch. The type was soon widely spread in southern Britain, in civilian as well as military contexts. Meanwhile British manufacturers were adopting its form as well as continuing to make simple one-piece brooches, of which the Colchester type is the best known. Both the continental imports and the British products of this period were made of brass, in contrast to the bronze of earlier Iron Age brooches.

Brooches found in Britain datable to the later 1st century show greater diversity in form and decoration. Derivatives of the Colchester brooch were now being made of leaded bronze, presumably a cheaper metal, but not malleable so that the pin-spring had to be made separately of an unleaded alloy. Another development of the same type, found almost entirely in south western Britain, is nearly always hinged. These were still quite plain brooches, with a few simple mouldings, but new types such as the trumpet and headstud are much more decorative. In contrast to the conquest period, virtually all these new types were made in Britain: very few examples are found elsewhere.

The standard trumpet brooch appears at this time in the northern military area of Britain, usually made of brass or gunmetal. Other trumpet types, slightly devolved and usually less well moulded, are leaded bronzes, and more often found in the civilian south. The headstud group shows similar traits: a finely detailed type is typically of brass or gunmetal but the simpler variants, usually with the headloop cast in one with the brooch, are of leaded bronze. Moulds for these have been found in the Mendip lead-mining area. Other decorative British products of this period include ‘umbonate’ disc brooches. Numerous other designs continued to evolve well into the 2nd century.

Parallel developments were taking place on the continent, most strikingly seen in the plate brooch types, a few of which are found on British sites. Study of the much greater numbers found in their native area – the Roman provinces in Germany, the Low Countries, eastern France and Switzerland – shows a consistent development in the technique of enamel decoration. At first each colour was in separate small cells, then in larger fields containing different colours juxtaposed and finally the whole surface was enamelled in all-over patterns including millefiori. Another distinctive group showed various animals – mythical and real – in outline, with the flat surface enamelled in abstract patterns. Examples of these zoomorphic brooches are the stag and fish.

The 2nd century saw the maximum development of decorative brooches, and it seems they went out of fashion in the later Empire (3rd to 4th centuries). However brooches continued to be used by some people, especially the army, and they still bore limited decoration. Two main groups are found all over the western Empire, most often on military sites, and though more standardised than the earlier production they still show changes in design and distribution.

Knee brooches developed in the later 2nd and 3rd centuries, when they were superseded by the very widespread crossbow types. Within these groups there are forms found across the western provinces and beyond, implying large scale manufacture, while others are confined to smaller areas. Some knee and crossbow types are found mainly in Britain, in both forts and civil sites, presumably local products. By the later 4th century the developed crossbow is common in Britain and across the Empire, increasingly in civilian as well as military contexts, and some show elaborate decoration. While most were of a standard alloy of leaded bronze some were gilded or made in gold or silver. This type is seen on statues of high officials and even Emperors. Brooches were in fashion again.
« Laatst bewerkt op: oktober 31, 2007, 02:23:31 am door aureum »

aureum

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Re: iets leerzaams over fibula's
« Reactie #1 Gepost op: oktober 29, 2007, 17:35:05 pm »
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aureum

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Re: iets leerzaams over fibula's
« Reactie #2 Gepost op: oktober 29, 2007, 17:35:35 pm »
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aureum

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Re: iets leerzaams over fibula's
« Reactie #3 Gepost op: oktober 29, 2007, 17:36:03 pm »
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Offline Dax

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Re: iets leerzaams over fibula's
« Reactie #4 Gepost op: oktober 30, 2007, 13:20:39 pm »
Dit is ook weer prachtige info  ((: 9prima  .... ook nog effe zeggen dat ik vind jullie prachtig werk leveren, prachtig om aan te zien de fibula afdeling  (:appl (:appl (:appl

( als dit het topic vervuild mag het weg hoor ;))

Groeten,
Dax